The Importance of Purushottam Adhik Maas

The Importance of Purushottam Adhik Maas

The lunar calendar adds one extra month after every two and a half years . This extra month is known by various names :- Adhik Maas , Mal Maas , Purushottam Maas , Malimmacha . This is the thirteenth month of the lunar calendar .

Jyotish texts mention how this naming came about :
Shakunyadichatushkam tu ravermalamudahrutam ,
Tadurdhwam kramate bhanormasaha syattu malimluchaha

i.e the four Karanas , namely Shakuni , Chatushpad , Nag and Kimstugna are the sun’s residue . The duration of the transmigration that occurs in these Karanas is called the residual month .

In Jyotsh’s Palsamhita , great merit is attached to the Karana in which the sun transmigrates .That is , out of the 7 Karanas beginning with Bav etc , the 4 Karanas namely Shakini etc (cited above) are rather stable and are termed the residue of the sun . Therefore the transmigration that occurs in these 4 Karanas is known as the residual month .This occurs every 32 months.

Just as there is the lunar year with the extra month (Adhik Maas) , so is there a lunar year with a diminished or reduced month , with only eleven months in the year .the lunar year comprising of eleven months only is very rare indeed . It occurs once in 140 years or once in 190 years .But the extra month or Adhik Maas comes every two and a half years .Adhik Maas adopts the name of the month that follows Adhik Maas

Vasishtha Siddanta (treasure of Vasishtha) mentions that Adhik Maas or the extra lunar month occurs after every 32 months, 16 days and 8 Ghadis (a Ghadi is a period of 24 minutes and 60 Gadhis equal 24 hours ).

It is a fact that the solar year is made up of 365 days and about 6 minutes and the lunar year is made up of 354 days .Thus both the solar and the lunar years have gaps of 11 days , 1 hour , 31 minutes and 12 seconds .As the gap increases each year, it approximates in three years to one month (Note : the moon takes about 27.3 days to make one complete orbit around the earth . The earth orbits around the sun once every 365.2422 days ( = earth’s orbital speed of 29.79 km per second)

The earth and the ,moon in 27.3 days have moved as a system about 1/12 of the ways around the sun . this means that from one full moon to the next full moon , the moon must travel 2.2 extra days before it appears full .This is due to the curve of the earth’s orbit around the sun . The moon is still making on complete orbit (circle) in 27.3 days .But to line up with the earth and the sun to become full moon again takes 29.531 days .

29.531 days Lunar month = 356.372 days per lunar year .Thus we arrive at the difference of 10.87 days a year between a lunar year and a solar year of 365.2422 days per year )

Ban on performing auspicious rituals in the residual Month.
The ancient sages declared that when the moon is in the sun’s aura (mandal ) and if at this time , the sun transmigrates from one zodiac (sign) to another , it destroys the merit of the yagna or other rituals .Therefore auspicious rituals should not be performed during this period .Instead holy acts and deeds such as bathing (in sacred rivers) , donation , listening to Kathas etc for
propitiating God, should be performed rather than idling away time .

In ancient times the Rishis Asit , Deval , Angira , Vamdev and others gathered at Naimisharanya Kshetra . Sutaji too arrived , while on a pilgrimage .Welcoming him , the others requested him to do katha which would imbue moksha .

Sutji replied “Once Naradji visited Narayan rishi’s ashram .He humbly prayed “O Prabhu ! What is the way to moksha in this Kaliyuga – age of darkness , which is plunging in ever increasing
hedonism ?”

The rishi replied , “O Muni ! If man was to listen to the divine lila of Purushottam Narayan , then even in Kali Yuga , he will grant moksha .”

Therefore the rishis listened to the lila in Adhik Maas , henceforth also known as Purushottam Mas . Prior to this name , the month was known as Mal Mas (meaning waste) .Since the sun did not enter any rishis during Adhik Maas , people considered it inauspicious and hence referred to it as waste .

Grieved by this blot , Adhik Maas took the form of a human and travelled to Vishnu in Vaikunth .With heartfelt prayers he requested to be delivered from this ignominy and attain honor .Merciful Vishnu blessed him , gracing him Shri Krishna’s darshan in Golok .

In turn Shri Krishna blessed him with the boon “Henceforth I have accepted Mal Mas ! From today , I will uplift him to a status similar to mine .”

Atanmasadhipashchaham mayalvayam pratishthitaha
Purushottamet mannama tadapyasmal samarpitam

i.e. “All the virtues that have rendered me fame as Purushottam in this world , and my name Purshottam , I gift both to this month .”

Shri Krishna then added , “Whoever performs satkarmas – good deeds in this month , their misery will be eradicated by these satkarmas .Those who perform penance in this month will conquer their indriyas –senses .Whereas by performing satkarmas in other months in attains Swarg , and also returns (to earth )after their depletion , performing them in Purushottam will totally
eradicate punarjanma – cycle of rebirth .

He then added that , “I will forgive all the sins of those who perform penance in Purushottam Mas .”

Another story relates to how Draupadi , in her past birth as Medhavati suffered spinsterhood .Durvasa rishi instructed her to perform penance in Purushottam Mas , which she hotly refused .Therefore she suffered Durvasa’s curse .To be delivered from his curse she prayed to Mhadevji .When this pleased him , she blurted out a request for a husband five times .This resulted in her being married to the five Pandavas in her next birth as Draupadi .Additionally , for insulting  Purushottam Mas , she suffered humiliation at the hands of Duhshasan in a packed assembly.Later , after hearing Purushottam Mas’s katha from Shri Krishna , the Pandavas and Draupadi performed penance in this month and attained peace .

Purushottam Maas’s glory is such that performing penances in any form even unknowingly in this month imbues spiritual merit .

Once a wealthy king named Dradhdhanva in his former birth , being childless , performed penance for a son .When the son was 12 years old he died .In grief the king and queen forsook food and sleep for a month , sitting near their son’s corpse .This month was Adhik Maas .This earned them Paramatma’s grace, who then resurrected the boy .

The Puranas also sing high praises about Adhik Maas and indicate puja , reading of the scriptures etc during Adhik Maas. Selfless actions, without the expectation of results are to be performed during Adhik Maas .Mal Maas (Adhik Maas) is the month for Vishnu puja . The recitation of Srimad Bhagavat Purana and of the Bhagavad Gita during this month produce top meritorious results .In addition to singing and listening to the praises of the lord Vishnu , undertake Adhik Maas Vrat also .This Vrat is to begin from the first day and ends on the last day of Adhik Maas .Waking up during the hours of
Brahma Muhurta (Between 4am and 6am ) after
ablutions , place a murti of Radha –Krishna or Lakshmi – Narayana and perform Sodashopachara puja .If there is a temple nearby then perform puja of whatever deities are usually worshipped therein . During the entire month of Mal Maas eat Sattvic food (vegetarian meals , milk , fruits , nuts , grains and vegetables ) One meal at night is recommended .

If physicall healthy , devotees should fast either on water only for the whole month, or do farar , or ektana – one meal a day .The days should be devoted to listening to katha .The merit of this vrat is greater than that of performing a hundred yagnas , since this leads to attainment of Paramatma’s abode .

It is written in the Bhavishyottar Purana that Shri Krishna himself has said regarding Adhik Maas Vrat by carrying out the Vrat with the sole aim of worshipping God , through fasting , cleanliness charity , puja etc merits are acquired which produce unfailing results and all sorts of calamities are overcome

Vishnu Puja
1.Commence worship and fats on the first day of Adhik Maas (morning and evening )
2. Puja should be done on a murtie or in front of a picture of lord Vishnu or Radha – Krishna .

Recite the following mantra while doing the puja

Aum Namo Narayanaya

1. Offer water 3 times
2. Offer Pancha Amrit six times
3. offer water 2 times
4. Cleanse murtie or sprinkle water
on the picture
5. Offer kum Kum , rice , flowers ,agarbathi and Prasad (Fruit)
6. Conduct Aarti using wicks dipped in ghee

Jap Mantra
On Narayanaya Vidhmahe Vasudevaya Dheemahe Tanno Vishnu Prachodayaath
This mantra should be recited 108 times to gain the greatest benefit from the fast

Vishnu Chalisa
Jai jai jai shri jagat pati, jagadadhar anant Vishveshvar akhilesh aj, Sarveshvar Bhagvant.

Jai jai Dhranidhar shruti sagar, jayati Gadadhar sadgun agar.

Shri Vasudev Devaki nandan , Vasudev, nasan-bhav-phandan.
Namo-namo sacharachar-svami, paranbrahma prabhu namo namo namami.

Namo-namo Tribhuvan pati Ish, Kamala pati keshav yogish.
Garudadhvaj aj, bhav bhai hari, Murlidhar Hari Madan murari.

Narayan shripati Purshottam, Padmanabhi narhari sarvottam.
Jai Madhav Mukuud, vanmali khal dal mardan, daman-kuchali.

Jai aganit indniya sarangdhar, vishva rup Vaman anand kar.
Jai jai lokadhyaksh-dhananijai, sahastragya Jaganath jayati jai.

Jai Madhusudan anupam anan, jayati Vayu-vahan vajra kanan.
Jai Govind Janardan deva, shubh phal lahat gahat tav seva.

Shyam saroruh sam tan sohat, darsha karat, sur nar muni mohat.
Bhai vishal mukut shir sajat, ur vaijanti mal virajat.

Tirchhi Bhrikuti chap janu dhare, tin-tar nain kamal arunare.
Nasha chibuk kapol manohar, mridu muskan kunj adharan par.

Janu mani pankti dashan man bhavan, basan pit tan param suhavan.
Rup chaturbhuj bhushit bhushan, varad hast, mochan bhav dushan.

Kanjarun sam kartal sundar, sukh samuh gun madhur samundar.
Kar mahan lasit shankh ati pyara, subhag shabda jai dene hara.

Ravi sam chakra dvitiya kar dhare, khal dal danav sainya sanhare.
Tritiya hast mahan gada prakashan, sada tap-traya-pap vinashan.

Padma chaturth hath mahah dhare, chari padarath dene hare.
Vahan Garud manogativana, tihun tyagat, jan hit Bhagvana.

Pahunchi tahan pat rakhat svami, ko Hari sam bhaktan anugami.
Dhani-dhani mahima again ananta, dhanya bhaktavatsal Bhagvanta.

Jab-jab surahin asur dukhdinha, taba tab prakati, kasht Hari linha.
Sab sur-muni Brahmadi Maheshu, sahi na sakyo ati kathin kaleshu

Tab tahan dhari bahu rup nirantar, mardyo-dal danvahi bhayahkar.
Shaiyya shesh, Sindhu bich sajit, sang Lakshmi sada-virajit.

Puran shakti dhanya-dhan-khani, anand bhakti bharani sukh dani.
Jasu virad nigamagam gavat, sharad shesh par nahin pavat.

Rama Radhika Siya sukh dhama, sohi Vishnu Krishna aru Rama.
Aganit rup anup apara, nirgun sagun svarup tumhara.

Nahin kachhu bhed ved as bhashat, bhaktan se nahin antar rakhat.
Shri Prayag-Durvasa-dhama, Sundardas Tivari grama.

Jag hit lagi tumahin Jagdisha, nij-mati rachyo Vishnu-chalisa.
Jo chit dai nit padhat padhavat puran bhakti shakti sarsavat.

Ati sukh vasat, ruj rin nasat, vaibhav vikashat, sumati prakashat.
Avat sukh, gavat shruti sharad, bhashat Vyas-bachan nishi Narad.

Milat subhag phal shok nasavat, ant sainaya jan Han pad pavat.

Prem sahit gahi dhyan mahan, hridai bich Jagdish, Arpit Shaligram kahan, kari Tulasi nit shish.
Kshan bhangur tanu jani, kari ahankar parihar. Sar rup Ishvar lakhai, taji asar sansar,
Satya shodh kari ur gahai, ek Brahma Onkar, Atma bodh hovai tabai, milai mukti ke dvar.
Shanti aur sadbhav kahan, jab ur phulahin phul, Chalisa phal lahahin jan, rahahi Ish anukul.
Ek path jan nit karai, Vishnu dev chalisa,


Om jai jagdish hare, Swami jai jagdish hare Bhagt jano ke sankat, shan mein door karey
Om jai jagdish hare

Jo Dhiyavay phal pavay dukh binase man ka Swami dukh binase man ka Sukh Sampati ghar aavey kasht mitay tan ka
Om jai jagdish hare

Mat Pita tum mere, sharan pau kisaki Swami sharan pau kisaki Tum bin aur na duja aash karoo jisaki
Om jai jagdish hare

Tum pooran parmatma tum antaryami Swami tum antaryami Par Brahm parmeshwar tum sabke swami
Om jai jagdish hare

Tum karuna ke sagar tum palan karta Swami tum palan karta Mae murakh kul kami kripa karo bharta
Om jai jagdish hare

Tum ho ek agochar sabh ke pranpati Swami sabh ke pranpati Kisa bida milu gusai tumko mae kumati
Om jai jagdish hare

Din Bandu dukh harta thakur tum mere Swami thakur tum mere Apne hath uthao, apnay charan lagao Dwar khada tere
Om jai jagdish hare

Vishay vikar mitao pap haro deva Swami pap haro deva Sharda Bhakti Badao, Santan ki sewa
Om jai jagdish hare

Om jai jagdish hare, Swami jai jagdish harey Bhagt jano ke sankat, shan mein door karey
Om jai jagdish hare